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TED演讲:乐成的要害不是智商,而是毅力

2018-05-08 14:12

泉源:爱语吧

作者:

  When I was 27 years old, I left a very demanding job in management consulting for a job that was even more demanding: teaching. I went to teach seventh graders math in the New York City public schools. And like any teacher, I made quizzes and tests. I gave out homework assignments. When the work came back, I calculated grades.

  在我27岁的时间,我辞去了一份十分有挑衅性的职业—企业办理征询,转而投入了一份越发具有挑衅性的职业:教诲。我离开纽约的一些公立学校 教7年级的门生的数学。和另外教师一样,我会给门生们做小考试和测验,我会给他们部署家庭作业。当这些试卷和作业收下去之后,我盘算了他们的结果。

  What struck me was that IQ was not the only difference between my best and my worst students. Some ofmy strongest performers did not have stratospheric IQ scores. Some of my smartest kids weren’t doing so well. And that got me thinking. The kinds of things you need to learn in seventh grade math, sure, they’re hard: ratios, decimals, the area of a parallelogram. But these concepts are not impossible, and I was firmly convinced that every one of my students could learn the material if they worked hard and long enough.

  让我震惊的是,IQ的崎岖并不是我最好的和最差的门生之间独一的差异。一些在课业上体现很好的门生 并不具有十分高的IQ分数。一些十分智慧的孩子反而在课业上体现的不那么尽善尽美。这惹起了我的思索。固然,门生们在7年级必要学习的工具是有难度的,像比率,小数,平行四边形的面积盘算。但是这些观点是完全可以被掌握的,我深信我的每一位门生 都可以学会课本内容,只需他们肯花工夫和精神的话。

  After several moreyears of teaching, I came to the conclusion that what we need in education is amuch better understanding of students and learning from a motivationalperspective, from a psychological perspective. In education, the one thing weknow how to measure best is IQ. But what if doing well in school and in life dependson much more than your ability to learn quickly and easily?

  颠末几年讲授之后,我得出一个结论,我们在教诲方面所必要的是从学习动力的角度和生理学的角度,对门生和学习举动举行一次更为深入的明白。在教诲体系中,我们都晓得评价良好门生的尺度 便是IQ,但要是在学校和生存中的良好体现远不但仅依赖于 你轻松高效学习的本领呢?

  So I left the classroom, and I went to graduate school to become a psychologist. I started studying kids and adults in all kinds of super challenging settings, and in every study my question was, who is successful here and why? My research team and I went to West Point Military Academy. We tried to predict which cadets would stay in military training and which would drop out. We went to the National Spelling Bee and tried to predict which children would advance farthest in competition. We studied rookie teachers working in really tough neighborhoods, asking which teachers are still going to be here in teaching by the end of the school year, and of those, who will be the most effective at improving learning outcomes for their students? We partnered with private companies, asking, which of these salespeople is going to keep their jobs? And who’s going to earn the most money? In all those very different contexts, one characteristic emerged as a significant predictor of success. And it wasn’t social intelligence. It wasn’t good looks, physical health, and it wasn’t IQ. It was grit.

  全部我脱离了讲台,回到学校继承攻读生理学硕士学位。我开端研讨孩子和大人,在种种十分具有挑衅性的环境下,以及在各项研讨中,我的题目是谁才是乐成者,为什么他们会乐成?我和我的研讨团队前去西点军校睁开调研,我们试图预测哪些学员可以或许耐得住部队的训练,哪些会被镌汰出局。我们前往观摩天下拼字角逐,同时也试着预测哪些孩子会晋级到末了的角逐。我们研讨在恶劣的事情情况下事情的,刚入行的教师,扣问他们哪些教师决议会在学年竣事后继承留上去任教,以及他们之中谁能最快地 进步门生的学习结果。我们与私企互助,向他们扣问哪些贩卖职员可以保住事情,哪些可以赢利最多?在全部那些差别的情境下,一种性情特性凸显了出来,这种特性在很大水平上预示了乐成。并且它并不是交际智力。不是英俊的表面,矫健的体魄,也不是很高的IQ,它是毅力。

  Grit is passion and perseverance for very long-term goals. Grit is having stamina. Grit is sticking with your future, day in, day out, not just for the week, not just for the month, but for years, and working really hard to make that future a reality. Grit is living life like it’s a marathon, not a sprint.

  毅力是对久远目的的豪情和对峙,毅力是拥有长期的恒劲,毅力是你对将来的对峙,日复一日不是仅仅连续一个星期大概一个月,而是几年乃至几十年高兴搏斗着让本身的空想变为实际。毅力是把生存当成一场马拉松而不是一次长跑。

  A few years ago, I started studying grit in the Chicago public schools. I asked thousands of high school juniors to take grit questionnaires, and then waited around more than a year to see who would graduate. Turns out that grittier kids were significantly more likely to graduate, even when I matched them on every characteristic I could measure, things like family income, standardized achievement test scores, even how safe kids felt when they were at school. So it’s not just at WestPoint or the National Spelling Bee that grit matters. It’s also in school, especially for kids at risk for dropping out. To me, the most shocking thing about grit is how little we know, how little science knows, about building it. Every day, parents and teachers ask me, "How do I build grit in kids? What do I do to teach kids a solid work ethic? How do I keep them motivated for the long run?" The honest answer is, I don’t know. What I do know is that talent doesn’t make you gritty. Our data show very clearly that there are many talented individuals who simply do not follow through on their commitments. In fact, in our data, grit is usually unrelated or even inversely related to measures of talent.

  几年前,在芝加哥的公立学校里,我开端研讨毅力。我对上千名初中生举行了关于毅力的问卷观察,然后期待了一年多,来看终极哪些门生能结业。结果证明那些更具毅力的门生 在结业的概率上占相对上风,纵然是在异样可以量化的内在要素下 像家庭支出,尺度化结果考试的分数,乃至是孩子们在学校能得到几多宁静感之类,还是有毅力的门生更容易结业全部不但仅是在西点军校里大概天下拼字角逐上才必要毅力。在学校亦是云云,尤其是对付那些倘佯在停学边沿的孩子们。对付我本身来说,关于毅力最让我震惊的事变莫过于对付毅力,我们知之甚少,在造就毅力上,迷信对明白的了解又是多么缺少。每天都有家长和教师来问我,“我怎样做才气造就孩子的毅力呢?该做些什么才气传授给孩子们真正的职业品德?又该怎样变更他们恒久的积极性呢?”诚实说,我不晓得。(笑声) 我所晓得的是,才气并不克不及使你坚持不懈。我们的数据非常清晰地评释,有很多才气横溢的人,他们都无法对峙兑现本身的答应。究竟上,凭据我们的数据来看,毅力通常与其他要素有关, 乃至与才气的权衡尺度南辕北辙。

  So far, the best idea I’ve heard about building grit in kids is something called "growth mindset." This is an idea developed at Stanford University by Carol Dweck, and it is the belief that the ability to learn is not fixed, that it can change with your effort. Dr. Dweck has shown that when kids read and learn about the brain and how it changes and grows in response to challenge, they’re much more likely to persevere when they fail, because they don’t believe that failure is a permanent condition.

  到现在为止,我所听说过的在孩子身上造就坚固品格最有用的要领叫“发展型头脑形式。”斯坦福大学卡洛杜威克提出过一个看法,他信赖人的学习本领是可变的,它随着你的高兴水平而变革。杜威克传授表现,当孩子们阅读和学习有关大脑的知识以及它在面临挑衅时所产生的变革和发展环境,他们失败之后更容易对峙下去,由于他们不信赖会不停失败下去。

  So growth mindset is a great idea for building grit. But we need more. And that’s where I’m going to end my remarks, because that’s where we are. That’s the work that stands before us. We need to take our best ideas, our strongest intuitions, and we need to test them. We need to measure whether we’ve been successful, and we have to be willing to fail, to be wrong, to start over again with lessons learned.

  因而,发展性头脑形式对造就毅力大有裨益。但是我们必要更多。我决议在此竣事我的批评,由于我们正在履历着这统统。这是面前目今所面对的事情。我们要拿出最好的想法和最强的直觉,我们要对他们举行理论。我们必要估计这统统能否乐成 同时还要盼望对失败和错误,要从这些失败中罗致履历重新再来。

  In other words, we need to be gritty about getting our kids grittier.

  换句话说,我们只要本身变得更有毅力,才气让我们的孩子变得更有毅力。

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